Extended diploma

Within this post I am going to be going through the stages of my creation of my FMP ideas. I will be researching three different types of ideas that range differently within genera, techniques, styles and over all game play stylistics and approach. The three ideas that I have in mind all differ in all of these field, however they are all steel related to my specialist study which is environments and 3D modelling. I am working within a group of three who of which are: James R., Michael E. and I and These three ideas that we have though of are;

  • A location that is based after the second world war (WWII). This is going to be consisting of having various scenes that are within the time periods of both within the second world was as the fire fights are happening as well as carrying on to the aftermath when the war has ended.

It is going to possibly consist of 6-7 different modeled environments ranging within size as well as how much is going to be cluttered/ placed within each of the environments and the other is going to be a slide show of drawn concept work. This will show the aura of the story that is behind the scenes that are after this initial part.


We decided to create a series of environments/locations that are going to be based around the era of the early to late 1940s around the Second World War. The overall idea of this concept was because we thought that it would be a good basis for several ideas, mainly for the many different perspectives that the Second World War could have been preconceived through the eyes of everyone and all could have countless recollections of certain moments in time. As well as this we had a various amount of regions that we could have done for the location rather than being stuck in one specific place for a certain idea.

  • A forest, naturalistic environment that is going to show one of the two different perspectives that I would like to show off the environment and the world. I am planning on doing for the first perspective is having the player explore a temperate and serene forest environment the is teeming with life, which then changes to the forest slowly being manipulated as time goes by and ‘human interaction’ takes hold upon the forest as you make your way up this peak of a mountain. As the player reaches the peak of this mountain they are met with nothing but pain and heart felt sadness as the forest is no more, and nothing but a de-forest mechanised, distopionised, environment and when they turn around they are met with a huge city at the bottom of the hill with not an ounce of the forest left.


The reason why we decided to choose a forest type environment was for many reasons and one of the main reasons where based around the current epidemic of global warming and deforestation and we wanted to create something that can relate to this and intern increase awareness upon this matter. Another reason was that – similar to the WWII idea – to have an environment that can have multiple perspectives in which this kind of thing can be interpenetrated much like the interpenetration that ‘ColdWood Interactive’ did for their game unraveled where they show off deforestation and industrialization.

  • A “haunted” house. This is my third I dead that relates to having a basic haunted house that is going to look decreped and worn as well as dusty and abandoned. The main these that we are going for and that we have discussed is to base it off of the mansion that is within the move “Rock Horror Picture Show”. Making the rooms that are within the mansion as well as capturing the eerie and creepy feel that the original house gave off to the audience as they watched the movie.


The idea behind the spooky mansion was like any other mansion house and that was to make it spooky and horror based which we knew and thought that that was an easy option for us to go for because horror and big areas/houses are a huge and well used combination that we could use to our advantage.

Because we knew that it was something that had been done quite a lot already we decided to change the whole idea behind this as well as the overall feel of the mansion and we was going to do this by making the house similar to the movie ‘The Rocky Horror Picture Show’ to change the overall feel and mature of the house.

Chosen Idea

The Idea that was chosen was the World war II idea because we though that it would be more appropriate to create because the theme of horror was a widely chosen later year and it is a rather well known theme to choose and the theme of making a nature environment we thought was too limited to what we could expand upon and create in such little time.

So we decided that it would be a good Idea to choose the historical WWII idea, This was easier to expand on the emotional side of things (which we touched upon in unit 12 “add link”) within the final product of the environment/s that are going to be created.




Week 1

Exploration of Canterbury


Within this session I am going to be looking at the research that I conducted yesterday that went throughout the whole span of the day, I went around with a small group of 5 people and we went around gathering information that relates to what we have in mind of our FMPs. What I was planning on doing was to take photos of the surrounding areas and taking not on their architecture as well as looking at creating a few drawings of the surrounding areas to ad my touch and a different medium.

What did I do?

Throughout the day I was exploring the city of Canterbury, looking a the surrounding architecture of the old as well as the new buildings that line the streets. The firs building that I decided to look at was the clock tower that is in the middle of the beginning of the town. This building is a rather one structure that is clearly shown by the images that I have taken below.

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You can see that this wasn’t quite built rather differently to how we build our buildings today, by the piled up stones that line the walls of the structure that have been stuck together with some sort of old type of cement or glue. As well as this the corners and rimming of the doors and windows for support for the surrounding walls to give the building more structure.

Throughout time you can see that the structure has deteriorated and fall apart because of both what this building has been through and  how old it actually is and this is reflected within the structure, building materials, textures of the walls as well as the look and feel of the walls, colour and design.

This image below was taken within the same structure and the reason why I took this image is because I thought that it shows you the modern influence on this building. By having a modern electrical box that is covered with graffiti shows how this building has been influenced by modern society and as well as this there is spray paint on the walls also.


Throughout the small yet interesting clock tower I took various shots with a camera a many different angels so I could scour the entirety of the building to look at all of the details that it has which I could then use with my FMP though their designs and structures.

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I used members of my class to help me scale the buildings doors and as well as the walls/space between them so I could get a brief idea on the scale and proportions of this building. This was going to help me when drawing the building and matching up the shapes of the tiles within the drawing itself.

To add more research into this location I decided to start to draw the archway entrance from the front of the building through to the back. The drawing that I produced was off of one of the archways, I wanted to capture the stone work that was holding the walls around the doors frame. I did add a little more detail around the bottom, walls and the floor so I could add little depth to the image as a whole.


After this we went through the town looking at all of the buildings and taking note of what they looked like as well as how they are positioned according to the events that happened throughout time which leaded us to looking into the colours that are used on the buildings.

As we found out there are very basic colours that are very similar to one another. This colour scheme of greys and browns were a continuing theme that went throughout the city of Canterbury. This has become more apparent towards the clock tower and this is because during WWII the buildings surrounding the clock tower were bombed and they had to be reconstructed fast which is why they are all grey and dull in colour.

The park

After exploring a little of the buildings that were around the entrance of town I headed to the park that wasn’t too far away which made it easier to check out. Upon visiting the park I took some pictures of the foliage that was in the surrounding area to give me a little insight on how the plants as well as the trees move in the wins, as well as how they have grown according to their surroundings.

This is going to be helpful when creating flora for my FMP, seeing how it adapts to the surrounding area around it and how it moves with the wind. All of these are going to help me with various specialties for my FMP which include Textures of plant life, moments of the plants, the overall shape and curves of each part the plant life.

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On the way back I looked at some of the other old pieces of history that were throughout the streets and this was the light fixtures that were around the town as well as in the parks and higher on buildings so it was hard to see at first because they were in plain sight which made them harder to notice because of this reason. Looking at the smaller and the more unnoticeable details that were all around me will come in handy when I want to look into details and textures of a certain item or building.

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I also look up and down every building searching each and every part of the building to get a look at all of the different architecture that every building had to offer and this building caught my eye because of the intricate designs that it had along its walls were far more that the rest of it surrounding building. This helped me look at my surrounding more broadly than I usually would look at things that are above eye level and this is going to help me when doing further research into looking at more of a wider picture rather than giving myself a limited amount and very narrow view.

Throughout the journey I have shown using an info-graphic the exact time that I went to each of these locations and what I did at these specific times. This is going to help myself and others understand the trek that I took and what I did to gather the Information and knowledge that I gathered. to create this I used the website Picktochart and Photoshop to add the images that are within the circles.


As well as creating this info-graphic I created another version of it, which shows an exact path on which was taken to each of the specific locations that were visited on the day and the times that they were visited. To add more clarification to this I created another style of infographic using the Program Photoshop to show the exact locations that I went to at the exact times, also I have added an image of the location where the images were taken.

canterbury walk picture graph


Throughout this research task it was rather interesting to find out that there was so much old historical buildings that have stunning architecture and colours that were around the town and within the gardens. I thought that most of the buildings (especially the clock tower) was a great representation of the damage that was done during World War II and this will help me with textures for my FMP.





Dover castle


To gather more information about the life style of the Second World War I decided to go on an outing to gather primary research for my FMP. I am going to be mainly looking into the materials that they used during the war as well as the life style and torment that they went through during this time.

The first thing I looked at was at the structures of one of the walls near the cliff over hang towards the peer. The reason why I looked at this is because I could see the shape and the colouration of the wall itself (being so close to the sea it was relatively open and venerable to on coming fire from the Germans across the channel. Looking at the overall wall there was a clear indication that here was some war time wear and damage that had been done to the wall itself.

Looking into something as simple as this it got me thinking about the type of stone that they used and why they used this type of stone, etc. Further research I did on this part of my exploration day was a rubbing of this wall to help myself when I want to make a texture that is relative to the contorts and design of this wall.

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(Add rubbing of the wall here)

As you can see there are lots of indents that are on this wall where they have been damaged or worn war through time which helps with the authenticity side of my FMP.

Nearby this there was a couple of benches that I also took a rubbing of to get an old wooden texture that will help me when texturing beams and other wooden objects within my FMP.

(add rubbing and possible picture of the bench)

This piece of wood had a lot of grooves within it and these splits/grooves go in most of the pieces of wood which indicates that they are either really old or just damages in one way or another.

Floor map

These weird shapes that are cut into the flooring are that of a map that has been engraved into the concrete floor that is not too far away from the stone wall and the bench. The map is off of the lower section of England and a part of France which I believe was to show where the English outposts were located, this was indicated through big circles that were placed in major cities such as London, Dover, Glasgow.

(Do a little more research into what it was used for)

After looking at the map and the wall I decided to look at the artillery that they had strewn around the castle, looking at how they were designed and positioned and how this helped keep the castle defended. There were many different types of artillery that were around the castle and all of them were different from the other, depending on where they are positioned and what their purpose is.

Within the Castle there was cannons that were used to defend the castle from the French from the Seige of 1216-17 where more additional cannons were added the north end of the upper level of the protected passage, or caponier, built as part of the outer defences to the north of the castle during the Napoleonic Wars, which Is why they are found mainly within the castle and the surrounding wall.

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Dover castle – Caponier

(This Image above of the Caponeir of the castle I drew to work out the dynamics and the overall shapes of the hallway and the spacing of the cannons.


Closer towards the edge of the castle there were placements of artillery weapons that were built around the time of 1905 due to the advances in technology as well as the oncoming threat of war that was only just around the corner. Having the castle so close to the edge of the cliff and the peer meant that it was in optimum position to house artillery weapons as well as a command post that the Navy could register boats that leave and enter the peer.

In the Second World War there was more of an increase of artillery that was added around the perimeter of the castle to help defend it from air crafts and soldiers.

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The positioning of these mortar cannon were directly aimed at the sea and the peer for easy maneuverability to strive an oncoming convoy that would be attacking and coming from the sea in the second world war. The textures of the rubber and metal that the mortar is made of are very worn because of time and what they had to endure throughout the war.

After looking at the placement of the artillery and the reasoning behind their placements I went to the Roman lighthouse and the church of St. Mary in Castro we walked through this clock/guard tower that had a huge wall surrounding the area. This building looks like the one that is within Canterbury (The clock tower at the entrance of the wall) with the same sort of structure in the way that they was designed and the way that they were built, which help validate that this is how these type of building were created in a specific time period.




N/A. (N/A) English Heritage. Available at: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/visit/places/dover-castle/history/  (24/04/17).



Concept beginning research

For the beginning of my FMP I would like to create an opening scene that displays various images that entail a story of the characters that are within the story. One of my inspirations for this idea was the game Sniper Elite and the entire franchise and this is because all of the opening scenes were it opens with a sketch that materialists in front of the player and manifests into a painted moving picture.


To understand how this works and how it looks I decided to play the game Sniper Elite 4 that is based within the Second world war so this can also help me with visuals and art styles in which to use for my drawings.

As seen within the beginning of this video and spread throughout this video, there are a few scenes that are of a drawing that seemingly comes to life as the main character Karl Fairburne (Red Fox) narrates over what is happening within the drawings themselves, giving the player an over view of how the story is progressing and/or what they are going to have to do within the mission.

I thought that adding this into the beginning introduction of my FMP will make the introduction more lively and interesting for the player. Rather than having a static image that pans or zooms in as a narration is played over it. To find a similar is not identical art style to what was shown within the video and game play, I decided to look at WWII artists that drew the war as it was happening.

Looking at artists during the Second World War I came across an artist by the name Eric Kennington who has a similar art style to that of the ones that were used within the game (Sniper Elite 4).

I found out a little background information about Eric while I was looking at some of his paintings to get a better understanding on why he has done art and what was his inspirations, etc.



Eric Kennington was born 12 March 1888, Chelsea, London and he died in 13 April 1960, Reading. Throughout Eric’s life he was well known for his art the he produced that showed the act of war. Eric was a child of two, his father Thomas Benjamin Kennington (1856-1916) and his mother Elise Steveni (1861-1895). His father was a portrait painter which was the first start of any type of art young Eric would see and experience.

A vital, independent talent in early and mid-twentieth-century British art, Kennington became a formidable draughtsman-painter, printmaker, and sculptor (his working practice evolved roughly in that order), and a great portraitist: his figures were often somewhat idealized, but always boldly executed, and frequently in pastel crayon, a self-taught medium in which he came to excel.” -Julian Freeman


Eric started to create his most captivational work within the first work war, starting in 1914. Kennigton within the First World War was enlisted with the 13th London Regiment, where the fought on the Western front but he was severely injured and he was sent home in June 1915.  During his convalescence he produced The Kensigtons at Laventie, a portrait of a group of infantrymen.


Within this image it shows the impact of war, the death of a fellow soldier and his Squad mate around his body. It is a truly captivating image, depicting how the war went.

It has been claimed by Campbell Dodgson that Kennington was “a born painter of the nameless heroes of the rank and file”. Eric Kennigton ork was based around 1917-18 and then again at 1940-42, he produces a large number of idealised pastles portraite that concentrated on the odinarry servisman.


This kind of art style was perfect for the Idea that I thought of creating for the introduction cinematic of my FMP I did a few animation drawings that show off Kinningtons art work slowly “coming to life”.



This first animation that I tried would was a little experimentation with paints as well as the idea of making the picture seem as it was coming to life before my very eyes. As you can see it is a bit speratic in its movements due to mot having a proper stand and position to tame the pictures from.



This animation isn’t quite completed yet as I am still creating it and experimenting with how to create and develop the idea as a whole. As you can see I haven’t added additional paint colours to this one and the reason for that is because, still being in the experimental stage I am still trying different methods to create the final outcome.



Looking into the different artists that were around the time of the war meant that I could gather the correct concept of the art that I wanted to gather to make it relative to the project. The art work and animations that I produced I where, overall quite well done. I thought that the way that I executed the design and animation of them worked rather smoothly, however, there were a few little bits that I wasn’t too proud of at the end of the animations. One of these main issues was the way that they looked especially the experiment with paints and animation and the reason for this thought is because it was rather messy and very jumpy.

Next time I will think about using a graphics tablet and a screen capture and just using a speed modifier to make the animation and drawing stage run smoother and faster than it did originally.



N/A. (2017) National Portrait Gallery. Available at http://www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/person/mp07185/eric-kennington (22/04/17).
Smith, J. (1997) Spartacus Educational. Available at: http://spartacus-educational.com/ARTkennington.htm (Accessed: 22/04/17).
N/A. (N/A) Imperial war museum. Available at: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/15145 (Accessed: 22/04/17).
https://mydailyartdisplay.wordpress.com/2015/09/10/eric-henri-kennington-part-1-world-war-i-and-t-e-lawrence/  – 22/04/17




Science and technology of WWII

I am going to be looking into the technology that was used and/or developed in the Second world war. The reason why I am looking into what kind f technology was used within the Second World War and what was developed around the time is so, when it comes to creating environments I can see what is relative and apparent to the time period.

WWII had a huge impact on technology, mathematics, science and new inventions, no other war has done anything as much as the Second World War has done for technology. There was lots of inventions and advances within the war especially in 1939-45 where there was a big need for power and a way to stop the enemy from winning the war. These inventions/advances include V-1 or “buzz bomb” that was an automatic aircraft (known today as the “cruise missile”) and the v-2 was a “Ballistic missile” that flew into space before falling down on its target (both were rained on London during 1944-45, killing thousands of civilians). Electronic computers were developed by the British for breaking the Nazi “Enigma” codes, and b the Americans for calculating ballistics and other battlefield equations.

There are numerous amount of small computers that were designed during the Second World War and these range from hand-held calculating tables made out of cardboard, to mechanical trajectory calculators, to some of the earliest electronic digital computers, could be found in everything from soldiers’ pockets to large command and control centers.



After looking a little into the technology advances that were within the Second world war I have decided to create the V-2 that was a revolutionary and destructive weapon that was created and developed from 1939-45 to destroy a huge amount of buildings and people on its impact.

To create this missile I needed to find out a few things about it first, information such as: its height, width and length would be a starting point, once I discovered the overall perimeters of the rocket, which are H: 14.00 m D: 1.65 m and a huge span of 3.56 m. knowing this I could finally start making the model. However this was not the case. Although, I knew the overall shapes of the V-2 rocket, that still didn’t mean that I was ready to experiment with creating a 3D model of my own and the reasoning behind this is because I wanted to find out the overall length of the fins of the rocket, the curves of the rocket as well as what was on the inside of it.

The reason why I was looking into this rocket and on what it can do upon its impact because of what it does is because of the environments in mainly based within London and it is going to be destroyed. Many of these V-2 missiles were rained down on London causing a mass of horrific damage. Knowing how much damage it can cause and how it works will help me determine how to deconstruct and destroy my environment to make it seem as if it were truly bombed.

I found out that the V-2 stats were; Thrust: 264.90 kN (59,552 lbf). Gross mass: 12,805 kg (28,230 lb). Unfuelled mass: 4,008 kg (8,836 lb). Specific impulse: 239 s. Specific impulse sea level: 203 s. Burn time: 68 s. Height: 14.00 m (45.00 ft). Diameter: 1.65 m (5.41 ft). Span: 3.56 m (11.67 ft). Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Learning all of this animation meant that I could work out the magnitude of damage the missile could muster.

v-2 size


After discovering what all of the stats of the missile were, it was time for me to start modeling the missile itself.

At first I decide to create a rectangle that indicates the average size of a human and a cylinder that was the size of the perimeters the missile is supposed to be. I started with the top of the missile by shaping the point of the missile as it was within the pictures that I gathered and the information that I found. After adding more lines to the different sections of the missile (which helped me to get the overall cure and shape of the missile) I started on creating the base of the missile where the engine and fins are.

After getting the overall shape of the engine I thought it was time to start adding additional lines so that I could make it – like the previous part – more rounded and shaped more like the original. The fins of the missile came with different styles because of the different interpretations of the design, depending on the country that made them.

The first one that I created was one that was similar to that of the one that was created in England, as you can see it has little segmented parts of the fins that enable the missile to tilt and turn after it has been shot off. The other idea was that off of a German V-2 missile, as you can see there is a difference within both of the designs and this is very apparent because their over all shapes and design choices.

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The design in which that I decided to use for my finalised idea was the German fins. The reason for me choosing this is because, even if it is a prototype, I wanted to make sure that it stays relevant to my overall task and the aspects of the war. Plus there is a big chance that it would be highly unnoticeable due to the distance of the missile,but it is still good to make this accurate to history.

Making sure all of that the fins were equal around the engine of the missile I decided to create the inside of the engine giving me an understanding of the positioning of the fins that I was going to be placing. After this was done all that was left was a quick texturing to make it look relevant to the time of origin and aesthetically pleasing.


Science and technology of WWII

The whole idea and technology of radar was greatly enhanced and developed throughout the Second World War. At the beginning of the war it wasn’t very well developed but as he war had progressed so did the overall technology of the radar, this mainly occurred at sights such as “Radiation Laboratory” at MIT. This allowed people to “see” people remotely, from a very far distance, radar made the idea of “surprise attack” to become completely void, meaning that this was not possible anymore. The creators and developers of the radar devised a contingency plan to counteract an enemy’s radar by making their bombers drop thousands of tiny strips of tinfoil that was code named “window” and “chaff” which jammed the enemy radar.

Finding this out means that there is a possibility that I could add tiny pieces of tinfoil that are spewed across the floor or on the buildings themselves that act as a “window” where there are thoughts of radar communication being nearby.

(Add more information)


For this section I thought that identifying and discovering the different types of technology that was used and developed during the Second World War could be vital to some if not most of the locations/props I am thinking about creating for the end of my project. Knowing what the different types of technology that was developed means that I can identify what to build and what I am going to be looking at and researching.

The 3D model of the V-2 that I created I though went well but not as great as it could have went and the reasoning behind this is because, although it only being a prototype and an experiment, it was still rather sharp on the edges and it was rather plane on the texturing side of things. The problem that I encountered when trying to correct this was that the computer in which I was working on at the time, froze and closed both the model (on 3DS MAX) and the texture (On Photoshop) which meant that I didn’t have an awful lot of time within the day to model it again and texture it also.

Next time I could make sure that the object looks a lot smoother and that I save frequently to make sure that I do not lose my work again.


N/A. (N/A) The world that changed our world. Available at: http://www.ww2sci-tech.org/essays/essay2_3.html (Accessed: 18/04/17).
World war 2 experiences – 18/04/17
NGSFT. (N/A) World war II. Available at: http://www.shapell.org/collectionfilters/world-war-two (Accessed: 18/04/17).
V-2 weapon – 18/04/17
Mail online. (N/A) The rocket that wrought carnage in London during the Blitz – and took us to the moon: Hitler’s V-2 is 70 years old
Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2211558/Hitlers-lethal-weapon-Seventy-years-deadly-V-2-rocket-launched.html (Accessed: 18/04/17).
V-2 size 21/04/17
Wade, M. (2016) V-2. Available at: http://www.astronautix.com/v/v-2.html (Accessed: 18/04/17).





Materials of the war

Within this section I was looking into the types of materials that were used within the War and both before and after it had happened. I am going to be looking at the differences within the materials and why they have changed in this way. At the end I am going to be creating assets that are made of these textures.


Throughout the was were many effects that had an impact on the people of the wars more within the Second World War that then first because of most of the advances that happened during the war, mainly within technology which meant more devastating impact of the locations and people within them. One impact was on the clothes that people had to wear. There were rations on peoples clothes, meaning that there was not a lot clothes to go around and there was a restriction on what people could buy according to clothing.

A lot of things had to be rationed and the clothes that people that to wear was not an exception in any way. Most people had to wear and repair what they already had which included all house appliances and items, not just clothing. There was a motto that was used during the time after the war, which was: “make due and mend”, so any piece of furniture people had (clothing, chairs, etc)


Many of their clothes and furniture (mainly with cloth on them) had to be patchwork on using other clothes or pieces of clothing to make a complete set of clothing which made a lot of the clothes after the Second world war to be tatty and patchy. This is going to come in handy with my FMP. Mainly because I now know what they had to ration and how they had to ration their clothing and furniture that they had and in knowing this I can develop and create assets that show this off. Whether it being a chair with a piece of cloth missing or a stool that’s had to have a leg re-attached to it, I can now develop these make shift ideas to give a more authentic environment.

The knitting and patching of clothes or furniture helps ease away the blackouts that were caused by the bombings over London.


As well as looking into what items were at rations because of the war I looked at what things were made of during the time zone and after the war and why they were adapted and created this way. The first thing that I looked into was the materials of the buildings.



After looking at the different types of materials that are used and needed within and after the war I am now going to experiment with the different types of assets and textures that will be created with some of these materials within the war.



The globe was one of the most important items within the war as it was – just like the map – was used to help locate where to position troops and determine where to go and move up troops positions. Globes were mainly owned by people of a higher class and for most if not all who lived in the slums didn’t have the money or space to have such a actuary item to have in their “houses”.





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I looked into what materials that were used in the creation and the construction of the walls of the building both before and after he war and the type of bricks that were used were rather similar to one another. I did a little research into what the spacing between the bricks are and the types of materials are used to create bricks.

I found out that the spacing between both bricks is most commonly between 8 and 15mm. Many brinks are made of clay and could be reused even if they were destroyed during the war.


To create this brick I created a rectangle with the desired parameters. I then chamfered off the edges of the brick to give it a refined look. I looked at chipping one of the bricks to give it a sense that it has been destroyed during the impact of a bomb.



I looked into the different variations of wooden beams so that I could construct a indoor environment with the beams hanging from the ceiling at the accurate size that they would have been within the buildings, I looking into variations of size and this is what I found.


Looking at these size variations I am more heading towards the 89mm or the 133mm sized planks because they are the more accurate sized wooden beams out of the lot.


Here I have done the same for what I did for the bricks. I have created two rectangles to the preferred sizes that I needed then to be and then “broke” one of them to signify the damage that was dealt during the war.



The television was invented and created in the 1920s, it wasn’t very well known but it took an awful long time to come to being and this is because of the process of converting light into radio waves and radio waves back into light too the inventors nearly 100 years to invent. The television had a variation of different names before it was given the well-known name “Television” and these names were:  Radiovision, Seeing by Wireless, Distant Electric Vision, Phototelegraphy, The Electric Telescope, Visual Listening, Telectroscopy, Hear-Seeing, Telephonoscope, Audiovision, Radio Movies, The Radio Kinema, Radioscope, Lustreer, Farscope, Optiphone, Mirascope.




I have decided to create a radio because more families had radios then they had televisions. The radio was one of the most important ways of communication about the war that the civilians and soldiers had. Before the First World War radios were only used for communication to ships that were out at sea, but after the First World War they became rather popular for the civilians. The very first broadcast was done by the BBC in 1922. The broadcasts quickly spread across the UK but failed to usurp newspapers until 1926 when the newspapers went on strike.

So the importance of me creating this model is rather great because it would have been essential to the family during the war. This is the radio model that I decided to create because I thought that in looks as if it would have been relatively cheap and most families would have a similar if not identical one.


For the radio I did two different designs. Meaning that throughout the creation of both of the experiments that I did I changed the way that I created them and positioned the separate parts on them.

I created a video of both of them showing you the journey that I the took in order to get them to the completed stage that they are at. The first image is off of the first attempt to create the radio and the second image is after I had a preference and an idea on how to create the radio. There are a lot of noticeable differences with both of the designs.

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Unfortunately the video file for the first creation was lost so I cannot make a comparison as easily now and I cannot show you how I created it from scratch. However, here is the video of the secondary creation:

00:00 – I started with the overall shape of the radio making the base and working my way up towards the top of the radio. There was a slight mishap and difficult to get the curve at he top of the model without making the model “break”. After trying a few thing i managed to get it to work and I was able to continue with the creation of the model.

00:32 – After getting the general size and shape of the radio I started to work on the part of the radio that emits sound. I used various tools and techniques to make sure it looked as accurate to the over I had as the reference image. I to to insert the face that I was going to make the speaker dip in, making it have a soft edge before it goes in towards the middle of the model. I extruded and beveled parts that had more detail and steeper inclines than the others.

00:46 – I stared to size up and create the dial on the front of radio where you will be able to see what channel it was on when the knobs were turned. It was a little difficult to get the shape that I wanted to get, mainly because it wasn’t shaped the way that I hoped it would have been.

00:58 – After making the dial reader I started to create the knobs of the radio that change the volume and the frequency/channel that the radio is on. Having an idea on how to create these from previous projects, it was easy to create these to the way that is shown within the reference image.

01:15 – After all of the different parts of the radio was complete it was time for me to start adapting and finalising the overall shape and design of the radio. I started with the bottom part of the radio which was the middle raised part of the base, adding additional lines as well as cutting them off made it easier for me to cap the edges making the gap at the bottom of the radio a realisation.

I then added extra lines to make sure when texturing the object and finalising it, that it wasn’t broken (Having more than 5 sides to a face/segment) so that i could smooth out all of the edges of the radio giving it that smooth finish.

01:46 – The last thing that I added to this was the grates that essentially protect the speaker from being damaged. The final part that had to be done was the shaping of the dial which didn’t take much to reshape it to my preferences.





Gramophones were a big part in the war and it helped comfort the families who were trapped inside their homes of the nights as well as the days. I have already created a gramophone for a previous project. However, I am going to be looking into redesigning it to make it look more like the ones that were around the time of the Second World War.

Here is one of the artist who were around the time of the Second World War. I am planning of having something similar to this playing on the gramophone.


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The first model that I created was a speed created gramophone that took me 1 hour to create and it is was created from the image that is directly after it is shown. The third image that I have chosen is off of a gramophone that was a rather compact model which most families would have had during the war because of the price of them.

The final image is off of a more modern model of the gramophone and the reasoning why I have chosen one that is from the 1970’s rather than the 1940’s is because I am showing the development of the gramophone throughout the years.


00:00 – So I started with creating the initial box in which the whole Gramophone was going to be based around. I thought that this was the best part for me to start with because it was the center of my model and it was going to help me size up the rest of the Gramophone also.

The additional extrusions of the walls of the box that I created because on the reference model it has a skin around the sides of the box. This all could be avoided by simply adding a texture over the top. However, the reason why I have created an inset then an extrusion is because as well as adding a texture I can adapt the extrusion to make it seem more worn then it is.

00:22 – After finishing the overall shaping of the box that it was going to be created from I decided to create the plastic box that’s going to hold the record as well as hold the rotational device that enables the record to rotate. After making sure that the position was spot on I decided to create the part that enables it to rotate as well as the disc itself. The reason why I am making them in one rather that separating them is because it will save a lot of asset space and time when texturing the models.

The button that turns the whole thing on I thought would be easier to build because making all of the asset parts that relate to the first box would be useful in the matter that I wouldn’t have to go back to make it later in the middle of working on something else.

01;00 – The hinges that connect the top and he bottom of the box I decided would be a good thing to start creating next. At first you can see that I was trying to fire out, by the reference image, how the hinges were designed and laid out. It took me a few attempts to get it the way that I wanted it and I used the same basic shape but just free formed it to match the length of the secondary hinge.

A problem that I noticed as I was making the hinges was that the boxes overall shape was too long for the design to look right as it does within the original image, so a minor adjustment to the overall length of box was changed.

01:32 – After the adjustment to the size of the box was created I decided to start on the creation of the mechanism that raises and drops the pin on the record. It was a little difficult to Gage the overall height of its stand and the overall size of it to fit within the space that it was given. There was a slight issue/failed experiment that occurred at 01:42, where I was trying to make this part of the model thicker and expand outwards. However this didn’t go as planned.

After getting the exact size and the diameters of the pins stand I started working on the holster that was going to connect the pin to the arm. This was a little hard to get the curved shape that it shows within the original image. I managed at 03:00 to make a pretty close design of the handle. I found it difficult to make the exact same things as a mirror of this design because of the way that I made the first half wasn’t easy to recreate. So, I decided to copy the same design over as a separate asset to make it accurate compared to the original.

03:32 – After getting the arms to be how I would like them to be I started on the circular part which the pin would be located at the bottom part of it. After lining up the end part of the pin I decided to re position and resize the arms of the pins stand. The reasoning for this is so that it looks like it is connected on both sides and that both sections of the arms can slot easily within on another.

04:07 – After I finally finished the pin and its stand I decided to start creating the two clips that keep the box closed at all times. It was a difficult task at the start because I wasn’t sure of the overall shape of the metal as well as the clip itself. Making sure that the clips were to the correct size so that on the other half of the box its part that sticks out wouldn’t just pop right out of the clips that are there.





All of these objects that I have created are going to help me with my project in the long front, helping me by letting me know the different items and resources they were made from. This will help me in the further development of my project and an additional help with what materials were used around that time.

The models that I created I think went rather well in the prospects of how they look and how well they are going to fit within the environments that I am planing on creating. The Gramophone that I produced looks rather good, all it needs is some minor tweaks and then texturing and it will be completed as well as the radio. Small changes might be added to this on a later date depending on what new information that I discover or decals/markings that I wish to add to the design.



N/A. (2017) Imperial War Museum . Available at: http://www.iwm.org.uk/history/8-facts-about-clothes-rationing-in-britain-during-the-second-world-war (Accessed: 24/04/17).
N/A. (2017) Vintage globe 1942. Available at: https://www.etsy.com/listing/84861233/vintage-globe-1942-airways-globe-wwii (Accessed: 24/04/17).

Motto – 2/28/17

Purple Frog. (2016) Think brick. Available at: http://www.brick.org.uk/about-the-brick-development-association/ask-the-expert/ (Accessed: 01/05/17).
N/A. (2017) Homebuilding & renovating. Available at: https://www.homebuilding.co.uk/choosing-bricks/ (Accessed: 01/05/17).
N/A. (2017 ) Are turntables becoming popular again?. Available at: http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/gadgets/audio-music/turntables-becoming-popular-again.htm (Accessed: 01/05/17).
N/A. (N/A) Gramophone Columbia Viva-tonal Grafonola n° 111a. Circa 1940. Available at: https://en.expertissim.com/gramophone-columbia-viva-tonal-grafonola-n-111a-circa-1940-12247112 (Accessed: 01/05/17).
N/A. (2012) Steven & Kelly timber engineering, roof & flooring solutions. Available at: http://www.stevensonandkelly.co.uk/stevensonandkelly-versalam.html (Accessed: 01/05/17).
BBC. (2017) The story of BBC Television – How it all began
. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/historyofthebbc/research/general/tvstory1 (Accessed: 01/05/17).
N/A. (N/A) Television time – wordpress. Available at: https://televisiontime.wordpress.com/1940s/ (Accessed: 01/05/17).
Techwholesale. (2014) History of the radio. Available at: http://www.techwholesale.com/history-of-the-radio.html (Accessed: 01/05/17).
N/A. (N/A)  Listening to the radio at home in
1940s wartime Britain and afterwards
. Available at: http://www.1900s.org.uk/1940s-home-radio.htm (Accessed: 01/05/17).




Living quality

After looking a what the civilians went through during the war I decide to loo at the type of living quality of both the civilians and the returning soldiers of the war itself. Discovering how they lived will help me picture how the environment would be formatted and/or presented to a person on that time making it easier for me to design inside of some buildings as well as the structure and placement of items (Furniture, food, medical supplies, etc)


So throughout the war there was an awful lot of destruction that was scattered throughout London which meant that the was hardly any places for the civilians and the returning soldiers from the war. Many of the returning soldiers and civilians moved to towns and cities to find work and they usually rented their homes from privet landlords.

The overall living quality of the civilians and the soldiers was appalling because of the amount of damage that happened during the war. Many of the poorer people lived in slum housing. The slums were overcrowded to the point of bursting and this meant that there was a huge impact of people’s hygiene, which effected the amount of disease that was spread around between people. To make all of this worse, the council did very little to resolve this issue.

On another note of how people were designated to live, the middle class and skilled workers lived in better quality housing in what is known as the suburbs around the town and they used trams and railways to get to work, unlike the other class who lived in the slums who had to travel there on their own means.

hong kong WWII
Slums in Hong Kong – WWII


Overcrowding was a major issue after the war. The shortages within the land meant that here was an unruly number of people who were crammed into small places making it hard to manover around the area and an idea way to spread disease between people. Tenant houses contained up to six levels of flats that were all build within Scottish towns and two storey back to back houses were built in town in England.



This is what one of the complexes would have looked like from the outside. Many people will be crammed into a small complex like this because of the lack of housing at the time.


The 1940s house

Looking into the history and overall design and shape of houses during 1940-45 I stumbled upon this house map of what the house would have looked like around the time of the war itself



  • The living room

    As you can see within this classic living room you can see that they have a rather plane style that is clearly indicated throughout the space of the living room and the reasoning for this relates back to the rationing of items during the war. The videos goes on to talk about the fireplace and how it was the center and the “focus” of the room which for me would be a good place to start when creating a living room for my FMP, focusing on this first along with the walls, windows and door frame could help me in planning out the rooms design.
    The fire place was also the main source of heat that was given to the families during the time of the war, however the usage of fuel war rather limited because of the “fuel saving scheme in 1942.
    maxresdefault (2)
    Rethinking on where I was planing of placing the toy assets within my environment they will have to be more of a reasoning to why they are within the child’s bedroom rather than being within the front room.
    Gramophones were also a necessity within some houses front rooms as well as a wireless (Radio). (stars – vera lin, glenn millar and his band)

    Curtains where drawn across every window from 1939 to VE day in 1945 and they did this so that the German bombers couldn’t see any lights that were on within the houses during the night.


  • The Kitchen

     I decided to look into the kitchen as well, mainly because of within the child’s bedroom there could possibly be sounds of a kettle boiling or the sound of the stove turning on which will add to the authenticity.
    There has been a huge change within the kitchens because of the Second world war to what we have today. One of the main changes and differences are that there wasn’t and preservers within most of the houses during the war. Meaning that there wasn’t many fridges or freezes within peoples houses to keep food from spoiling. As well as this there was no washing machines, so something called a Electrically heated bathtub when was used along with grates to clean all of the clothes.


  • Squander Bug air rifle target

    This creepy little plushy was created during the Second World War. It first appeared within the presses adverts to make a job on Hitler, But it quickly  developed into something much more that just a prop for broadcasts. It has been used in several poster designs ,urging people to save for the war effort rather than “helping Hitler by ‘squandering their money on consumer goods”. As well as this it was used within uses of target practice for non soldier (civilians) people and in town parades culminating in the symbolic hangling of the creature.
    It was shown within 5 different posters through the war and all of which have different interpretations of who or what the “Squander Bug” is. These are the different posters that were released around the Second world war. All of their names are:

    The Squanderbug alias Hitlers pal, don’t be a Squander Bug, Don’t listen to the Squander Bug, Squash the Squander Bug and Kill the pest.

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    These are going to be useful when either creating my very own design of a poster that depicts the same think or used within my final project as a poster that has been strewn around the area.



  • The Dining room

    The dining room was where the whole family would always gather around to eat together every day and no one would be absent when meal time was around. The reason for this is because the were encouraged by the Government to eat within the same room, all together to save energy because of the rationing of both food and on fuel.
    Something called a “Food Flashing” was shown within cinemas each and every week so that families could save their food and portion it correctly. This is going to be helpful to know because this can be implemented within the project as wither a rationing book or background noise of a cinema playing the film over/poster of the “Film”
    Across the windows of the dining room door that lead out into the garden had a special tape called “Splinter net tape” that was over each individual piece of the window to prevent and splintering and shards of glass flying into the house when an air raid was in action. This can be an interesting addition to my FMP By applying this to the windows as a more aesthetic addition to the environments.
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    Splinter net tape – 1943


  • Morisons Shelters

    The Morisons shelter was names after the Minister of home security Herbert Morison. It was an innovative idea that was used and created for those families that didn’t have a garden to build their Anderson shelter. Undoubtedly it did save many, many lives within the war, even though it wasn’t commissioned early enough to be put into effect.
    An Anderson Shelter was a shelter that was made of curved and straight metal that was bout 3-6cm in thickness that is designed so that it can keep all of the occupants within alive. The outer shell is them buried in lots of dirt, as well as this it is dug about 2-4 ft into the ground to give extra protection.
    The Morisons shelter was a little similar in this sense, however Instead of being outside under the ground they were within the house normally around bed or made as both a table and the shelter. They were all the protected, like the Anderson shelter was like and this is because unlike the Anderson shelter it doesn’t have stable and sturdy walls, it has a wire like mesh that lines the entire parameter of the shelter which prevents debris and glass from going in.
    morrison shelter


  • The Childs Room

     The child’s bedroom is relatively small not being able to hold more than 3 children in it at once. The overall design of the room is much like the others, the fireplace is centered in the middle of the room where all of the other fireplaces within the house are positioned as well. It is small much like the dining rooms fireplace and this was because the biggest fireplace was within the living room, where the family would gather to sit and play with their toys.
The toys within the room were normally designed around the war and war themed in nature, them being planes, soldiers and vehicles, for example: Tanks. Toys were in great shortage as the war progressed because most if not all of the toy companies were told to start manufacturing real weapons for the war to help win the war itself. This lead to toys being handmade by either the parents or the kids themselves.
Which leads to the idea of me using the props that I created before as the children hand made toys for their enjoyment and remembrance of their father when he is at work.

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Both of these toys are going to have to be “handmade” by the characters. The paratrooper doll was created for the daughter to remind her of her father while he was at the war. It was knitted and designed by her mother who wanted to make something to make her daughter happy while her father was away.

The toy plane was made from an old broken stool adn table, made for Jonathans son to remind him of his father while he was gone also.



  • The Master Bedroom 

     The Master bedroom was much like the others, having the same drab colour scheme as the rest of the house and having the fireplace where it was (In the center of the room) and being of a smaller scale to the living rooms one. The beds were made of a sturdy wood that were covered with “downed and feather filled idodowns”.
    Water bottles were needed during the more brisk and colder moths because the electrical fireplace just wasn’t enough to keep you warm.
    There was also a utilities scheme that circulated during the 1940s that meant that furniture that was essential for a household was limited to what you could have. There were 22 essential items and each of them came in two different qualities and three designs.


  • The Bathroom

     In the 1940s houses had both and indoor toilet and bathroom which at the time was very scarce to have around the time of the war. Most families were only reliant on having a tin bath that composed on having a big tin bucket type tub that the families would have a bath in every Friday night. The tin tub was usually located in the kitchen and the toilet was usually located in the back year as some sort of out house, considering if the family wasn’t lucky enough to have an indoor bathroom. But which was more uncommon and strange was for a family to have an indoor toilet within their indoor bathroom. Most people would have to share one toilet that was located outside and shared with a huge number of families.
    There was a bath but no shower because of the water rationing that was advised only allowed every household to use on a mere 5 inches of bath water.
    Each family was advised to have a first Aid kit located within their bathrooms in case any injuries happened during an air raid.





house ownership -24/04/17

http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/standard/history/scotland_britain_1880_now/housing/revision/3/   – 24/04/17

http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/standard/history/scotland_britain_1880_now/housing/revision/1/ – 24/04/17

Honk Kong – 25/04/17




Gramophone – 28/04/17



Squander Bug – 30/04/17



Anderson shelter – 30/04/17



Morisons shelter – 30/04/17










Parliament damage







Psychological impact of games


I am going to look at the different emotions that games look as and looking at how they manage to do this within them. uncovering why they have done this and how effective it is. As well as looking at games I am going to be looking into other mediums that will help push forward my research and knowledge.

The reason why I am looking into the different emotions that mediums give off to their audience so that I can create an environment that will be giving off one of these emotions throughout the experience of the game.


Research for Horror

I am going to be looking at many different artists and how their work interporates fear within what they have done and how they have developed this through their projects. As well as this I am going to be looking at games and how they use their props, textures and layouts to portray fear to the audience.


The first thing that I looked at was a game and that game is Dead space 3 and the reason why I have chosen this game is because of the colours and genre that it is. Throughout the game you are met with lots of gruesome scenes that are covered with blood, rust and decay, which helps with the aesthetics of the game by making the scene scary.

Throughout the game you are met with a lot eerie scenes that use sound as well as visuals to give the player a sense of fear as it happens. The video below shows examples where they have used sounds within some of the scenes to invoke fear to the players by using high pitched noises as well as deep and dark tones that adds a sense of intensity to the moment that can give a feel of panic to the players within this scene.

Dead space scary scenes

Other games that I looked at were resident evil and Layers of fear. Resident evil 7 midnight uses light to its advance a lot within the opening scene by only lighting up a very small amount of the surrounding area making the game really difficult to look around and navigate the surrounding area. As well as this they use a great deal of decals’ on the objects that are strategically placed around the environment (which makes it hard to move around when the enemy attacks you) to give off a story to the player that is exploring, sometimes adding more and more questions to why they are here and for what purpose.

The Woman in black

A movie that shows the type of fear ha I was trying to evoke into my audience and the inspiration for my idea for the rocking chair to be placed at the end of a creep and old looking hallway. The whole theme of this task was based around this movie and how they evoked the fear onto the viewer at this given time and it is why I decided to incorporate a hallway into the project that I was doing.

As you can see throughout this video clip the rocking stars off quiet and it gradually gets louder and louder as the character get to the door. This kind of idea of the player looking away or moving backwards was going to be an extra feature to add a fearful encounter.


Research for Memories


The use of memories for my project are going to be used extensively due to the reason that some if not most of the environments and the props that are within the environments are going to be memory base and I need to know the physiological impact of memories and how they can be invoked upon the characters and the players.


I am going to be looking at the different types of ways that games give items a sense of great meaning to the main character by either giving them a sense of happiness or sadness or making them have a vision/ flashback to the memory or to think of the thing that relates to that object.

I looked at the game Unravel, the reason why I looked at this game is because throughout the game you are following a sentient being of yarn what goes through the old ladies house, going to each picture that initiates a memory that is related to the old ladies life when she was growing up until this point.

All of the pictures start a memory that you have to play through and throughout the image/memory it shows you a part of the story and the life of both the old lady when she was younger and about the place that she grew up, it shows you what happened to her and why it is such a memorable point in her life. As you progress throughout the story you gather pins that – with everyone you find – adds more photos to the old ladies photo album showing you the happy memories that each of the pictures/levels are based around.


This concept and idea I though was a very good implementation to the game making the player understand and see the journey that the old lady and the ones who are dear to her went through within each of the memories.

Psychological science

I looked into the Psychology behind memories and how a memory is created and on what terms that they are created. If something the happens to you is traumatic it generally become fixed within your head, which as time goes by this memory will play on the mind of whom ever experienced this moment and it will continue to play repeatedly in the ‘mind’s eye’ which will cause the occupant distress.

Within the game Fallout 4 you play as either “Nate” or “Nora” and they are subjected to such an experience when they see their wife/husband be killed by a mysterious assailant who then proceeds to steal their child (Sean) from their partners’ lifeless arms. This plays a huge part in the characters mid set when he/she is suddenly woke for his ‘cryogenic sleep’ and through the story he/she is focused on one thing that is to find the man the killed their husband/wife and to find their missing son.

It goes on to explain that everyone undergoes some form of traumatic experience within their life and it will affect them in a different way to one another due to the level of the traumatic experience and on the person it is done to. For most war veterans they might suffer from PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) where as others might suffer from an emotional disorder ACE (adverse childhood experiences) or depression that is caused from their experiences.

As well as this I was thinking of having something that is more of a fear that gets brought up by looking at the object. Something that is known as Uncanny valley where the mind is subjected to having a fear and unsettling feel of emotions when they’re involved with something like this and an example of something like this is AOT (Attack on titan). This game has enemies that have proportions that are rather disproportionate to the rest of the body giving some players a sense on un easiness. Another game that does this is Alien Isolation and the AI that are within this game.


Research for Action




Dead space concept art


Resident evil 7 midnight


Unravel memory


Psychology behind memories


Uncanny valley


Alien isolation








Household development


I am going to be starting my first environment that is going to be off of a child’s room from the 1940s. This room is going to consist of two beds that are placed across from one another one for each of the two children, a fire place, one bedside table with a lamp, picture frames on the walls, a draw and possible a toy box.

All of which are going to show that life style of the children who were in the war. Where it becomes relevant to my project is that throughout the scene there is going to be objects of great importance to the main character and this is going to be visually shown throughout the environment.


Room layouts and the adaptation of bricks

I looked into the layouts of the rooms that are within a house this will help me in designing and creating the room to what I would like it to be set out like.

Throughout the 1920s and the 1930s a lot of the foundations that were used were about the same that they were before.  London Building Acts and Model Bye-laws introduced a number of minor amendments (see below). The examples below were suitable for houses with foundations in firm clay or coarse sand.

Early Brickwork

Going all the way back to the 1700s there was a lot of changes and improvements that were done the brick laying of houses as well as the making of the bricks. Blending clays, better moulding techniques and more even firing gave a greater consistency in brick shape and size. Within the late 1600s and the early 1700s coloration for bricks was rather high, especially for two main colours and these colours were red and purple shaded bricks and within the 1730s there was a huge change to a softer brown type colour, which is used profoundly today.

Now going to the 1800s the production of a yellow brick was highly wanted because of its close resemblance to natural stones colour. There was a repeal of the brick tax in 1850 that lead to the improvement of mixing and moulding machines, together with better firing techniques, allowed brick production to reach new heights.


Brick bonding

Heading towards the end of the 19th century most houses has walls of at least one-brick thickness. the taller a house was generally determined the overall thickness of the walls which enabled it to withstand more weight from the additional rooms.



The stone work within houses mainly prestigious buildings or within areas where it naturally occurred. In areas that were further up land mainly in the north and west, using stone was a rather obvious choice to start building. The reasoning behind this is because it was readily available within this area because of the railways the overall pricing of bricks was rather expensive so stone was the next best thing. There are three different groups of stone: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. The sedimentary group, which includes limestone and sandstone, accounts for most of the stone used for building in the UK.

Rubble walling is found in a variety of styles. A rubble walling house was much thicker than a normal brick house. A brick house would be 215mm or so in thickness from the outside of the house to the inside of the house and being able to maintain up to three stories, whereas a stone house was roughly 325mm or even more, which is way thicker than the standard brick walls. Although it is thicker it cannot hold as much weight as the brick walls and the stone walls were normally accompanied with a brick backings to keep it supported. Most rubble walls were pointed flush or slightly recessed. The ribbon pointing so often seen nowadays is not traditional, neither is it particularly durable.

Stonework which is dressed and/or finely cut is often referred to as dimensioned stone and it is sometimes referred to as free stone. The meaning behind this naming is that the stonework can be worked (cut, shaped and smoothed) with a chisel and a saw in and direction. The stone is all fine grain and is free form obvious lamination and pronounced bedding planes.

In the 18th century whole cities were built (some rebuilt) entirely out of stone, which relates back to my previous research tasks finding out why they built some of their building out of stone, rubble method. It was not cost effective to build the entire wall out of freestone and backing material of rubble or brickwork can nearly always be found. In some houses only the front elevation would be built in freestone, the sides and back being constructed of rubble or brick. To bond the two halves of the wall together, ‘through’ or bonding stones were used.

Where the freestone is laid with very fine joints, almost invisible from more than few feet away, the work is knows as ashlar. In some parts of the country the stones were cut with a taper to make the joints easier to form. Wedges made from bits of timber or even oyster shells were often pushed into the back to provide stability as the mortar set. These buildings were built with lime mortar which hardened very slowly. Hydraulic limes were not unknown but they were less common and more expensive. In addition they often set too quickly resulting in high waste on site.


Lime mortars were common until the 1930s, in some parts of the UK, even later. Limestone or chalk was burnt with coal to form Quicklime. The burnt line stone was known as lump lime and the Quicklime was slaked with water and then mixed fine aggregates (which nowadays is mainly sand) to for the mortar. Making a mortar meant that it would take up to a few moths to settle before more work could be done so it wasn’t widely used until after the Second World War. After this was a process that is known as carbonation. Some limes have a hydraulic sent, meaning that it’s like a weak type of cement.

During the 1930s and 1940s cement mortars gradually replaced lime ones. Lime was often added to the mix to improve its working and qualities and durability. 


In the early 1900s period joints were usually finished flush or slightly recessed.  Where very good quality bricks were used the joints were often only 8mm, or even less. This, together with the use of brick dust in the mortar, meant that the mortar had very little affect on a building’s appearance. Working-class housing was usually pointed in a lime mortar which included local industrial waste products as fine aggregate. Perhaps ash was the most common. The photos below show three examples of good quality 19th century brickwork.

Tuck pointing was usually reserved for the best quality work. Tuck pointing is basically in two parts, a bedding mortar often containing aggregates to match the colour of the bricks or stonework, and a thin ribbon of lime pointing to finish the joint. From a distance a wall that is tuck pointed appears to be finely jointed.  


Cavity walls

In the latter part of the 19th century a number of houses were built with cavity walls. It was not, however, until the 1920s that this became the accepted form of construction. Cavity walls were cheaper to build than their solid wall counterparts. In addition they offer improved thermal insulation and better weather protection. Most walls comprised two half-brick leaves with a 50mm cavity. The two halves of the wall were tied at regular intervals with steel or wrought iron wall ties. The external leaf of brickwork was laid in facing bricks, the internal leaf in commons. A few early cavity walls had an external leaf one brick thick and, in some early forms of construction, the DPC ran right across the cavity.

DPCs (to prevent rising damp) were in common use by the early 1900s. They could be made from lead, pitch, asphalt and slate. Not until the mid 1920s did vertical DPCs become a standard detail around openings.

1930s to 1960s

During this time period cavity walls changed only a little. Mortars gradually became cement-based rather than a lime-based enfusement because the overall setting time for the cement made sure that there was faster construction than there previously was. Blockwork became a more common material for the inner leaf of cavity walls – the blocks were usually made with an aggragate of stone or some sort of industrial waste (clinker and breeze were some of the more common industrial wastes). Only a few houses around this time were made of the type of rendered finish and they were generally built of solid blockwork (i.e. non cavity)

1970s to 1980s

Moving further ahead to the 1970s insulation standards were slowly improved from the 1930s. Achieving this standard was relatively easy; a brick external leaf, a 50mm cavity, and a dense block inner leaf finished with 13mm lightweight plaster, just made the 1.7 threshold. In 1980 the maximum U value dropped to 1; this required lightweight blockwork in the inner leaf. From this period to the present day most lightweight blocks have been made from aerated concrete. They were (and still are) made from cement, lime, sand, pulverised fuel ash and aluminium powder.  Once these materials are mixed with hot water the aluminium powder reacts with the lime to form millions of tiny pockets of hydrogen.  However, there are several other materials for blockwork which have enjoyed brief popularity. These include concrete blocks faced with insulation, hollow blocks containing polystyrene granules and blocks made from pumice or no-fines concrete.


Layout of the houses

After getting a rough idea of what the outside of the houses are going to look like as well as what the style of walls are going to be within my environment I could look into the overall build and design of the interior of the house. Doing this will help me in creating the ideal environment that matches the overall shape of the house and the rooms within it.

In the 19th century and at the end of the Victorian period in many houses their floors were elevated off of the ground rather than being completely submerged within the ground like houses were before.

The main beams that lay within the houses foundations and within the floors lay vertical on their sides and they are propped up with a honeycomb sleeper wall to make them have that little space between the ground and the floor for insulation.


Unlike modern day buildings where the beams would be supported by a overhanging metal beams they would have been firmly pressed within the wall itself. Which meant as soon as the wall crumbled the wood would bow towards the point of loss making it un-sturdy for that part of the house.

(Later start talking about games that are based around WWII, looking at the buildings that have been destroyed and also talk about modern buildings that have been destroyed or partly destroyed and do a comparison)


Child’s room assets


Relating back to a previous research session that I conducted (Add hyperlink to previous section) on the children’s room and on what they have within their room at the time that my FMP is based around. I am going to be creating 3D models of the objects that are within the room so I can use them within my own environment.


Fire place

An electrical fire place was nearly within every room of the house within the 1940s, but because of the oil rationing many of the fire places within the house weren’t used very often and this was because most of the family was gathered within the living room the majority of the day conserving energy and power around the house.

I have decided to create a fire place of the child’s room so that I can show you that they did use and have these within nearly every room within the house. It wont be operational within the environment because of the situation that the environment is based within.


I started with a simple rectangle that I thought shouldn’t be too thick and adaptations to certain sections could be made larger if that was needed. I wanted to get a mirrored effect for both sides of the fireplace much like that of the other fireplace within the original image. To make sure that I could get the fireplace to “mirror” on both sides was to split the model down the middle with the line tool so I could then divide and mirror the sides of the fire place.

After using the method I managed to create this practically even fireplace on either side of it. I was tweaking the sticking out parts of the fireplace before working on the electrical part of the fireplace.

(show first and second image here)

After making sure that either side was symmetrical I decided to work on the middle part of the fireplace which too had to me symmetrical.

(Show third image)

This is how the final part of the fireplace turned out and it is finally ready to go within the child’s room.


Toy box

I thought about creating a Wicker toy box for the child’s room because I think it will push forward the idea that the room is housing or use to house children because of this.



A bed was an obvious asset that was going to be within the child’s room. I have decided to make one of them even though the room is going to be housed for two children. However, one of the beds are going to be destroyed and within the hole that is in the ground.

This is the type of bed that I am going to be creating and hopefully I can make it look exactly the way that it loos within the image because it is going to play a big part withing the environment.


The first thing that I started with was the bottom rails of the bed. I started with a simple cylinder that I then proceeded to extrude the top face repeatedly, gradually turning the top face and making a curve that was going to link both ends of the railing together.

(Add images here)

I then started on the bars that are between the middle of the side panels by just simply creating a cylinder and using that as the inner bars as well as the side and middle supports of the bed.

Having the human reference (The see through rectangle) helped me determine the overall size of the bed.

(Add second and third image here)

The difficult part for this was creating the cover for the bed because I wanted to make sure that the overall shape of the cover looked realistic to the extent that it is all wavy and bumpy. This was accomplished by having a lot of faces and extrusions to the ends of the center rectangle that I initially created.

(add the fourth image)

Next came for the pillows, the first pillow (the back one) was the biggest pillow and it was all over the place, so to make it as it would be within the original image I made a chambered rectangle where I then extruded and then shortened and squished to give the pillow case look to it.

The second pillow was a little easier to create because it wasn’t as all over the place as the other as the bigger pillow.

(add the pillow images here)


side table and lamp

To generate light within the room I decided to look at the types of light that were within the 1940s. The light that is going to be one of the only light sources that are going to light the room at the end of its creation. It will be on a flicker so that it is going to light up the room in bursts of light.


The first thing that I did was create a flattened square to make the base of the lamp, then I used inset then extrude to make the upper flattened square.

(Add image here)

After this I had to create the middle part of the lamp, which was a difficult to make because it was more circular that the square base of the lamp. To overcome this I added an inset that made the perimeter smaller, extruded a long rectangle the length that I wanted it to be and then I chanpfered the edges of it to make it more cylindrical.

(Add second image here)

The lampshade wasn’t too difficult to create, all I  needed to do was to create a cone that i had to make the top half of it smaller than the rest of it. The holster for the bulb was a little harder to make because I was unable to see it in the first place so from my knowledge of the holding mechanism for the bulbs and created what you see before you.

(add image here)

This is the final creation of my lamp that is going to be placed within my environment that will help me add a lighting effect within the room at he end of this design.




picture frames





House structures 1940 – 01/05/17











picture frames